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    Lucky登陆【jdzbyf.com】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。宿州淹方有限公司(原吉林延俣家庭服务有限公司)成立于1990年,占地面积83726平方米,顶盛貴賓會其中生产厂房占地6837平方米,仓库面积占地3523平方米。固定资产5829万元,流动资产1921万元,干部职工共265人,工程技术人员98人。Lucky登陆XiaoJunyanResearchReport,,2000(Total1271)eofnumerousnewfeaturesinChina’sruraleconomyattheturnofthecen:heoriginalsupplyfunctionofproducingagriculturalproductsandindustrialproductsfordailyuseinthemaintoademandfunctionofprovidingaconsumptionmarketforagriculturalandindustrialproducts,,becausethenationaleconomyasawholestartedatalowlevel,thebasicdailynecessitiessuchasclothing,food,housingandtransportationwereinsevereshortage,theurbanindustrywasingreatneedofcapitalaccumulationandtheconsumptionofurbanresidentswasinurgentneedofimprovement,hencethefunctionofruraleconomywasbasicallysetatthelevelofsupplyingagriculturalproductsandsomeindustrialproductsfordailyuse,andtheconsumptionoffarmerswasalsosetatthelevelof"foodandclothing".Withurbanandtownshipresidentsbecamebetteroff,thereemergedarel,theproductionscaleofagriculturalandindustrialproductsforconsumption,insteadofbeingdecreased,hadtomaintainstableandincreaseslightly,,thebasicdemandforconsumptionamongthemiddleandlowincomeurbanresidentsandthemajorityofthefarmerswasnotsatisfied,whilesuchademandwasaresultoftheunbalancedeconomicde,,agriculturalandind,t,itisofvital,whichusedtobedecidedbytheincreaseoftotalsupplyandthequantitativeincreaseofsupply,isnowdeterminedbythesimultaneousincreaseofitsthetotal,andthekeyelementinthebalanfypeople’sdemandforfoodandclothingofthewholenation,itscontinuouslydecreasingpriceanddifficultinsales,,itmightmeanthatthesupplierisnotabletomeetthechangingdemandeventhoughitssupplyingsystem(includingprice,variety,qualityandquantity),itmightmeanthatthetotaldemandisnotsufficient,,thelogicalresultsinclude:thestructureofquantity,varietyandqualityofthesupplycannotbeadjustedtomeetthedemand,theincreasingpricehaspreventedthemarketfromdevelopingdifferentconsumptionlevels,,ithasbeenassu,gurepercapita,whichisnothigh,thetotaldemandisinfactworkedoutbasedontheurbanpopulationonly,whichaccountforonly20-30%,thedemandforfoodoftheruralpopulation,whichaccountforthemajorityofthetotalpopulation,cannotincreaseinaccordancewiththegrowthoftotalsupply,,theconsumptionofagriculturalproductsofmiddleandlowstandardbyfarmersandalargenumberofurbanresidentswithmiddleorlowincomehavebeenchecked,,itisnodoubtthatthetimehaspassedwhenthebalancebetweendemandandsupplywasdeterminedpurelybysupply,andth,ontheonehand,movefromagricultureandthecountrysidetomergeintonon-agriculturalsectorsandtheurbanareas,andontheotherhand,,underthepolicyof"takinggrainasthekey",reformandopeningandtheincreaseoffreeflowofrurallabour,,theruraleconomyisstillatsuchastagethattheprimaryobjectiveistoprovidepeoplewithenoughfoodandthatthenon-agriculturalsectoralmostdoesn’,cottonandotherproductsaswellasthedevelopmentofruralindustry,,farmerswerebetterfedandclothed,theyhadanurgentneedforincreasingincomes,whilethedevelopmentofthenon-agriculturalsectorwasconstrainedbylocalproductionelementsandthehighermarginalcostinexpandingthemarket,henceresultinginthereallocationoflargenumbersofrurantotheurbanareasisontheincrease,andthatthetownshipenterprisesandprivatesectorsaremovingtowards,,highqualityelementsarerequiredtobeinjectedintothec,capitalandagriculturalproductionmaterialiftheagriculturalgrowthistobectscaleandhavefairlyflexiblesystems,nthe80s-90s,whentechnology,talentsandcapitalwereabi,theadjustmentisconfrontedwiththeseriousproblemof"gapinthechangingdemand".raladjustmentafterthetraditionalindustrial/agriculturalproductshaveobtainedstable,eoffarmersandpromotethecapabilityofcon,wecanseethefollowing:Firstly,,thecurrentandexpectedexpenditureonhousing,"overtenthousandyuan"expensesw,,therurali,ifeachfarmerincreasestheconsumptionofanimalfoodandindirectlyconsumesanadditional50kgofgrain,…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ThefiguresintheabovetableshowthatthecurrentaccountsandcapitalaccountsinChina’sinternationalbalanceofpaymenthave,fortheexceptionofoneyear,ysince2001due%,%$,whichwasUS$,foreigntrademain,,theamountofcontractedinvestmentwasUS$,%.TheamountofdirectforeigninvestmentthathasbeenactuallyutilizedwasUS$,%.Increasedforeigninvestmenthas$170billionbytheendofMay2001,whichwasUS$,nChina,ofwhom,,,,,,,,state-ownedandcollectively-ownedeconomicun,,andemplngeinemploymentstructure,thelaid-offstaffandworkers,alongwiththepopulationnewlyenteringthelabourmarketaswellasthefloatinglaborfor,,incitiesandtownshipswhichwaslessthan,roved....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    ZhangChenghuiResearchReportNo71,2001Recently,theauthorcarriedoutafieldstudyinfourregions,namely,Shandong,Jiangsu,ShanghaiandZhejiang,onthefinancingsituationofnon-stateenterprises(NSEs).Duringthestudy,theauthorhaddiscussionswithentrepreneursofthenon-stateeconomicsectorand’sBankofChina,thepublicfinancedepartments,theEconomicandTradeCommission,theIndustrialandTradeAssociation,commercialbanks,guarantyagencies,ventureinvestmentcompanies,technologyandpropertyrighttrgovernments,thereisnosignificantchang,thetotalnumberofprivately-ownedenterprises(POEs)inJiangsuProvincereached174,,theprivateeconomiesoftheprovincecontributedRMB170billiontoGDP,representing20%,thetotalvalueoftaxespaidbyself-employedbusinesses(SEBs)hasexceeded12%%,NSEsmainlyconcentrateinthemanufacturing,wholesale/,47%ofthemarefoundinthefivecitiesofNanjing,Suzhou,Wuxi,,ZhejiangProvincedevelopedfromthepreviousagriculturalprovincewithaweakeconomicfoundationtothepresentindustrivinceinChina’,theprivateeconomyhasbecomeamajorcomponentofZhejiangeconomy,andtheproportionofsucheconomyisashighas80%,,;whilethetotalnumberofPOEsinZhejiangwas146,400,with340,economies(SPEs)was16%,exceedingthenetassetsofall,%oftotalvalueof%,thenon-stateeconomyhaschangedthepreviousechelonformofdevelopmentcharacterisedbyfa,thereisstillaconcentrationinthesecondaryindustryandthecommercialwholesale,,therewere188,800self-employedindustrialandcommercialhouseholds(SICHs),800people,,,therewere110,,%overthatofthepreviousyear,representing5%,%,theaverageregisteredcapitalofPOEswasRMB710,000,morethanthatintheotherthreeprovinces(RMB685,000inZhejiang,RMB545,000inJiangsuandRMB428,000inShandong).AsimportancewasattachedtoSPEsbyalldistrictgovernments,theirdevelopmenttendedtobecomebalancedbetweencitydistrictsandsuburbancounties,whichcorrectedt,,,,,%,theNEShasturn,theeconomicgrowthpullingroleofthestate-ownedenterprise(SOEs)hasobviouslyweakenedasaresultofassetrestructuring,la,China’sNEShasdevelopedra,thegrowthrateoftaxrevenuepaidbySEBsinSh,theaverageannualgrowthoftaxespaidbySPEsperannualreached32%,thepr%%.Inparticular,whileSOEslaidoffalargenumberofworkersandweregenerallyincapableofabsorbinganynewlabourforce,theNESservedasanimporta,SEBsinShanghaiandJiangsurecruitedanaccumulativeof228,000andover500,,ShandongProvincere-employed280,rtantroleinpromotingmarketcompetition,improvingcommoditysupplyandservices,facilitatingcommercialisationofscienceandtechnologyresultsandco-ordinatingstate-ownedenterprisereform....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.:aMajorImpedimenttoIndustrializationofHighTechnologyExperiencesofforeigncountrieshaveprovedthat,intechnologicaldevelopmentsystem,transsthescientificresearchachievementsmadebyscientificresearchinstitutes,universi,theratiooftransformationofresearchachievementshasforyearsbeenaroundalowlevelof5%,ades,wepacedalongtheoldpathtotransferscientificre,thefundsprovidedbythegovernmentwerefarfromsufficienttosupportthetransformationofresearchachievements,so,somewithmarketpotentialhadtobes,duetothelackofrealinvestmentbodiesandmechanismsoflimitingcost,andencouragingbettereconomicreturnsfrominvestmentinparticular,theeffectofthefundsusedforthetransformationofresearchachievementswasverylow,therefore,itcouldhardlyposeavirtuouscyc,therealityisthatscientificresearchandhi-techindustryareseparatedasiftheybelongedtodifferentsectors:Scientificresearchersdonotcareforcommercialbenefitsfortheirach,meanwhile,hasnowaytoarousetheenthusiasmofresearchersinupgradingproductsandprtegrationofthetwosegments,,thegovernmentmadetremendouseffortstoencouragebanksreditco-opsinvariousareasacrossthecountry,thegovernmentsparednoeffortstoadjusti,however,nologicalenterprisesdidnotoperateasoriginallyrequired,butturnedintonon-bank,commercialbanksbecamenotso"obedient"asbeforewhentheirreformtowar’sBankofChinain1998showedthattheenterpriseslocatedinthehi-techdevelopmentzonesinBeijing,Tianjin,Jilinandotherprovincesandmunicipalitieswereuniversallyhauntedbyshortageoffunds,,forinstance,plannedanincreaseofRMB100millionasspecialloansearmarkedforscientificandtechnologicaldevelopmentin1997,gNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZonehasalsorevealedthatonly7%oftheenterpriseslocatecingmethod,plansandadministrativemeasures,commercialbanks,obligedbytheirpromisesofrepayingtheprincipalsandintereststodepositors,havetooperateinasteadfastwayathecharacteristicsofhigh-techenterprisesthatareunstable,lackingguaranteeassets,,therefore,banksappeartobeveryprudentintheirselectionoftargetproj,’sBankofChina,theshort-termloanswithinoneyearaccountedformorethan95%entralgovernmentestablishedtheprincipleofactivelypromotingdevelopmentofhi-techindustry,therehasbeenacommonunderstandinginrecentyearsthatthecapitalmarkattheShanghaian,thestatusquoofChina’scapitaoneisatypicalexample:a)Ofthe2,343joint-stockenterpriseslocatedinBeijing’sZhongguancunarea,onlythreeraisedfundstotalingRMB860millionfromthestockexchangebyissuingA-sharesin1998.(StudyReportofBeijingNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZone,1999)b)Therehasbeennoexamplesoforthatanyscientificandtechnicale)ThepropertyrightsmarketinBeijinghasbeenkeptbypainstakingeffortssinceitsestablishment,,)TheBeijingMunicipalGovernmentpooledRMB500millionin1998ands.Withotherfundsearmarkedforventureinvestment,thet,,whilethedeep-rootedcauseliesintheincompletenessofmarketandrisksassessmentsystemsandinsomepr)Atpresent,therearethreeguaranteefundsinBeijingforsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,setupbythemunicipalgovernment,formalitiesforobtainingguaranteesaretoocomplicatedanddifficult,whe,however,thatmorethanhalfofhi-techenterprisesagreeth%ofenterpriseshavetakeortinghi-techenterprises,themajorproblemslyinginChina’scapitalmarketaremanifestedinthefollowingfouraspects:a)’scurrentmarketwithaunitarylayercanneithermeetthefinancingdemandofalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,,Chinascapitalmarkethasdevelopedtowardshighcentralizationandsimplifiedtobetwostockexchanges,imited,itisinevitabletoexcludecertainmar,namely,thestockexchange,thismarketisboundtofavorbige’traisesufficientfundsfromthecapitalmarket,wlayeroftrading,itscapacitywouldbelimiteddueto,aphenomenonatChinasstockexchanges,,invederaconsiderableamountofsocialfundsfromenteringintothecapitalmarket,thusleavingthemidle....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.10-200米ZhouHongchunDingNingningSocialDevelopmentResearchDepartmentofDRCAtatimewhenChinaisfurtherimprovingitsmarketeconomyandisopeningevenwidertotheoutsideworld,howshouldthegovernmentadministeretheinitiationofreformandopeningupIntheearly1980swhenChinaputforwardthegrandgoalof"quadruplingthenationaleconomybytheendofthecentury",quadrupled,theyestimatedthatwhenthenationaleconomywasquadrupled,,China’,energyexpertssuggestedthatthecentralauthoritiesshouldgiveequalprioritytobothenergydevelopmentandcons,whichtookitasaguidingprincipleforthecountry’,theStateCouncilEnergyConservationWorkingMeetingSystemwasestablished,aspecialenergyconservationfundwassetup,andpoliciesontaxpreferentialtreatment,,,China’,theaggregateamountofChina’,,,worth964billionyuan,,asmuchas290billionyuringresultingfromachangeinthecountry’,theproportionofthelightindustryinthenationaleconomyroserapidly,,,thestructuraloptimizationandtechnologicalprogressintheilddependo’ssternenergyprospectFirst,finequalityenergyisinshortsupply,erelationshipwithahi’,,Chinaimported70milliontonsofoil,,China’sdomesticoilandnaturalgasconsumptionwillfurtherdependontheinternationalmarket,whichwillbrin,China’spercapitapossessionofenergyresourcesisfarbelowtheworld’’,,,,itspercapitapossessionofcoal,oilandnaturalgaswasrespectivelyonly55percent,11percentand4percentoftheworld’’,China’spercapitacommodityenergyconsumptionislow,’andardcoal,47percentoftheworld’,,,whilethereisagreatpotentialforenergyconservation,’senergyefficiencyisabout32percent,,cementandotherproductsisabout25percentlowerthantheworld’,thereisa,firstly,wemustrealizethatChina’spastachievementsinenergyconservationweremadeagainstabackgroundofextensiveoperationandrampa,wemustalsorealizethattheenergyconservation"opportunities"arisingfromthechangeinthecountry’sdevelopmentstrategyanditseconomicrestructuringwillnotcomeagain,andthattheenergyconservation"dividends"ar,energyconservationinthefuturewilldependmainlyontechnologicalprogress,,theperiodoflowcommodityenergyconsumptioncoin’spercapitaconsumptionofcommodityenergyislessthanhalfoftheworld’saveragelevel,itstotalamountofgreenhousegasemissionsranksthesecondintheworldaember2002,PremierZhuRongjideclare,itfacesa’sdevelopmentlevelisanop,Chinafacesan,China’sproductexportsencounteragreenbarrier--"energyefficiencylabel".WithChina’saccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganization,eachandeverydomest,thepetrochemicalindustryandotherenergy-consumingindustries"energyefficiencylabel"system,China’selectromechanicalproducts(includinghouseholdappliances)mustapplyfortheregistrationof"energyefficiencylabel"renergyconsumption,,alltheenergyconservationadministrationdepartmentsinallindustrialministrieshavebeenremoved,andtheenergyconservationadministrationdepart,thegovernment’sadmomyWhilegreatachievementshavebeenmadeinenergyconservationandinparticularwhiletheundersupplyofdomesticenergyhasimproved,somepeopleraisedthequestionofwhetherthegovernmentshouldc,DRCformedaprojectgroupwiththeresearchersfromtherelevantresourceconservationdepartmentoftheStateEconomicandTradeCommission,theenergyinstituteoftheStateDevelopmentPlanningCommission,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    MG大陆网址GeYanfengResearchReportNo82,’’e’heoutsideworld,Chinahasturnedfromacountrywherethedisparityinpeople’sincomewasnotgreatorevenquiteequaltoacountrywheredisparityinpeople’arityinpeople’,whenthereformjuststarted,theWorldBankestimatedthattheGinicoefficientfortheincomeofChineseresidents(thoselivingonthemainland,excludingthoselivinginHongKong,MacaoandTaiwan)’,’,,’sincomegrew,,’,,alargeportionoftheirincomemustbeinvestedinproduction,,thedisparityinincomesamongurbanresidents,,accordingtosamplingsmadebyZhaoRenweiandotherscholars,,accordingtodatacollectedbytheStateStatisticalBureauinthecourseofresidentsampling,,theStateStatisticalBureauintandemwithanumberofdepartmentscaeStatisticalBureau,theGinic,itcanberoughlyseenthattheg,incomedisparityamongruralresidentshasbeenbasicallystable,whiletheincomedisparityamongeofincomeandofthepossessionofwealthbetweendifferentindividualmembersofsociety(thefamilies),teCouncilinthethirdquarterof1999amongurbanresidentsshowsthattheAugustincomesofthestudiedfamilieswhenlistedonahightolowscaleinfivecategoriesaccordingtothepercapitaincomewereasfollows:20%;and20%,thesituationwasasfollows:20%ofthehigh-incomefamilieshadapercapitaincomeof992RMByuan;20%:thehighestincomesandthatofthe10percentfamilieswiththelowestincomewasevengreater,1,:%oft,itisnotpossibletomakeacomparisonbetw,itcanbeassuredthatthedifference,e,butundertheeffectsofcontinuedlargedisparities,theamoisticalBureau,bytheendofJune1999,20percentofurbanfa,,the20p,:1997by6ministriesandcommissionsoftheStateCouncil:theStatetheStatisticalBureau,MinistryofLabor,All-ChinaFederationofTradeUnions,etc..,accordingtoasamplesurveyconductedbytheStateStatisticalBureau,bytheendof1998high-incomepeasantfamilieswhichoccupied20percentofthepopulationpossess,an1,000RMByuanpossessedlessthan3percentofthetotalsavingsdeposit....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ChenXiaohong,ZhangWenkuiLiZhaoxiResearchReportNo187,,thereformofthestateassetmanagementsystemisanimportantissuecloselylinkedtothereformofthestate-ownedenterprises,foritinvolvessuchspecificiss,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe14thCPCCentralCommitteealsolaiddownthestateassetmanagementprinciple,namely,the"centralizedstate-ownership,variouslevelsofgovernmentsupervisionandautomaticenterprisemanagement".TheFourthPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteefurtherstipulatedthesixteen-wordprincipleforstateassetmanagementsystem,namely,"stateownership,variouslevelsofmanagement,dividedsupervisionresponsibilitiesandauthorizedmanagement",andgavelocalgovernmentsmorepowerinthere,manymajorproblemsofthestateassetmanagementsystem,includingthebasicorientationandspecificpolicymanagement,especnagementsystem,,itremainsquiteambiguousinissuessuchasthemeaningofauthorization,sesdispersedinvariousgovernmentdepartments,enterprisesfeelatlossastowhomtoturntowhenimplementingdecisionsthatneedapprovalfromagensesandholdrelevantresponsibilities,theydonothavetheownershiprightsinlegaltermsand,therefore,,interferenceof"shareholders"thatbypasstheirimmediateleadersand"insidercontrol".Thisreportwillputforwardsomeviewsandproposalsontherelationshipforrightsforstate-ownedassets,SystemWheretheCeteassetswhileadheringto"state-ownership"lgovernmentsoverstateassetsisabasicissuerelated"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"andformulatenewstipulationson"authorizedmanagement""variouslevelsofmanagement"shouldbechangedinto"variouslevelsofownership".Webelievethatalthoughtheemergenceofthesystemandtheprincipleof"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"havetheirhistoricalrationale,,therefore,toadjustanddefinetheownershiprightsofthecentralandlocalgovernmentinvestors.·Chinahasalreadyrecognizedthepubliclyacknowledgedbasicprincipleofthemarketeconomicsystemof"whoeverinvestsowns"andhassetupcorrespondinglegalsystem,whichdeviatesfromtheprinciplethatgivesnoregardtoinvestorsbutcentralization;·Variouslevelsofgovernmentsalreadypossesstheownershiprightsatleastoverenterprisesinvestedbythecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsoroverthestate-ownedenterpriseswhosemanagementrightshavelongbeendelegatedtothecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsbythehigherlevelsofgovernments;therefore,anyeffortthatrefusestoadmittheexistingeconomicandlegalrelationsisapttoleadtoshort-termacts;·China’spublicfinancesystemisineffectahierarchicalsystemandwillbefurtherdevelopedandperfectedwiththecompletionofChina’staxationandpublicfinancetransferpaymentsystem;thestate-ownedenterpriseswith"centralizedownership"inthepastshouldbetrulydividedintothestate-owned(centralgovernmentowned)enterprises,localpublic-ownedenterprises(ormaybecalledlocalstate-ownedenterprisesinconsiderationofhistoricalcontinuity)orstateandlocalgovernmentjointlyownedenterprisesbasedontheirrespectiveshares;·Incountriesofmarketeconomy,state-ownedenterprisesorlocalpublic-ownedenterprisesaregenerallycalledpublicenterprisesorpublicinstitutionsownedbyautonomousentities;thepublic-ownedenterprisesofstateautonomousentitiesarethestate-ownedenterprisesandthepublicly-ownedenterpr,evenifitisjustviewedfromtheimplementationlevel,therearestillproblemsifthe"variouslevelsofownership",thereistheproblemofambiguoustargetsof"variouslevelsofownership".Shouldalllocalgovernment-financedenterprisesorenterpriseswhosemanagementrightsaredelegateddownbythecentralgovernmenttolocalgovernmentsbeownedbythelatterWhatarethebasisandconditionsfordoingsoThedelegationofpowerinthepastwasbasedonpreconditionsof"variouslevelsofmanagement"butnotof"variouslevelsofownership".Moreimportantly,thestate"centralizedownership"systeminthepastwasrelatedtotheentirestateeconomicsystems,especiallythepublicfinance,"centralizedownership"system,itisnecessar"delegated"enterprisescloselylinkedtothenationaleconomy,correspondingresponsibilitiesofvariousparties,theirrelationswithmajorenterprisereformpolicies,(),thecompletionofthehierarchicalpublicfinancesystemandtheprocesstoimprovethecorrespondingtaxationsystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.’sentryintoWTOuponitsbulkfarmproduceThethirdministerialmeetingofWTOwasheldinSeattleoftheUnitedStatesinNovember,,thatis,themajorfarmproduceexportingcountries,demandedthatthemembersofWTOterminatetheirnationalpoliciesonsubsidizationofagricultureassoonaspossible,andfelloutwidelywiththeEuropeanUnion,Japan,Norwayandothercountries,n,allitsmembercountriesabidebyitsrulesonthetradingoffarmproduce,andislayingitsemphasisonthesupervisionofagriculturalsupportandprotectionpolicies(includingmainlytheirsupplyofdirectpricesubsidiestoexportersandexport-orientedfarmproduce),Chinawou,Chinawillfirstofallmeetwiththefollowingproblemsinitsfarmproducetrade:-yeartransitionperiodthatwillfollowitsentryintoWTO,Chlivestockandpoultry,dairy,aquaticproducts,driedandfreshfruitandvegetables,ldduringthetransitionperiodThefarmproduceChinaimportsundertheTRQsystemfallintofivevarieties:wheat,corn,rice,(1-3%)forproductscoveredinimportquotas,andhightariffs(76-40%)totheproductslistedabove,anddiffersfromminimumimportpromise(suchasthepromisesmadebyJapanandTaiwanProvinceofChinaforminimumimportofrice).China’,anditsimportquotasforcottonandsoybeanoilwillincreasefrom743,000tonsto894,,andthatimportedbeyondthequotawillbecuucecommodityWhenTRQisapplied,itisrequiredinWTOrulesthatsomeoftheimportquota,90percentofthequotasforwheatandearlypolishedindiciarice,33percentofthequotasforcotton,75percentofthequotasforcorn,50percentofthequotasforJaponicarice,and50percentofthequotasforsoybeanoilcanbeassignedbythegovernmenttostate-ownedforeigntradeenterprises,withtheremai’scurrentforeigntradesystemanditssystemforthecirculationoffarmproduceatthedomesticmarket,andcreationanddevelopmentofmarket-orientedente’sbulkfarmproducemarkettotheoutsideworldundertheTRQsystemwillexposethecountry’sgrain,cottonandsoybeanoilprod’sagriculturalproductionisrestrictedbythegreatpressurefromabigpopulationandlandandwaterresourceshortageforalongperiodoftime,andthebusinessscaleandlabourproductivityofitsruralhouseholdsaresmallandlabourproductivityislow,thedomesticpricesofitsgrainandcottonproduct,theTRQsystemwillproduceacomparativelygreaterinfluenceuponcornandcottonproductionthanuponwheatandsoybeanoilproduction,(mostlytraditionalagriculturalareaswithmoderateandlowincomes)hatChina’sland-intensivcos,relevantdepartmentsoftheUSGovernmentcompletedaresearchreportontheinfluencesinthe10yearsafterChina’sentryintoWTOupontheSieritbecomesaWTOmember,nospecialchangestakeplaceinthegrowthofitsGDPduringtheperiodofforecast,alltradeoffarmproduceishandledbystate-ownedenterprisesinChina,thepricesattheworldmarketaretransmittedtothedomesticmarketviastate-ownedtradingenterprises(asrevealedbycurrentdataonstate-ownedtrade),andtheprice:Lucky登陆重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuMaiChinaDevelopmentForum,organizedbytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,washeldinBeijingonMarch27-28,morethan150people,includingchairmenandchiefexecutiveofficersofbigforeigntransnationalcorporations,representativesfrominternationalorganizations,renownedprofessors,Chinesegovernmentofficials,entrepreneurs,specialistsandscholars,,“China2010:Goals,PoliciesandPerspective”.spoliciesandtheywerepleasedwiththefactthattheChineseparticipantsearnestlylistenedtoandsolicitedtheiropinionsandsuggestions,andconcludedtha,afterattendingtheforum,wroteletterstoUScongressmen,ipants,on,whatwillChinadotocopewiththemShiGuangsheng,ministerofForeignTradeandEconomicCooperation,madeaspeechontheissuesrelatingtoChinasWTOisanimportantstepinmarketizingtheCh,ChinashouldlearnfromthelessonofRussia,andtheliberalizationofthecapitalmar,iftheyoperatefreelywithoutanyrestriction,theywillbeabletocompetewiththeChinesebanksbyofferinghigherinterestrates,consequently,theChineseGovernmentwilllosethemeanso,thegovernmentwillalsofinditdifficulttokeepitscontroloverthecapitalaccount,anditisli,articlesoftheagreementsmustbecarefullystudied,andtheopeningofcapitalaccountandfray,thatis,sorMackinnon’sopinionofs,instead,theydiscussedtheopeningofthebankingsector“ashortpainratherthanalongpain”,sayingthebankingsectoriscompletelyopeninHongKong,savingsdepositedwithforeignbanksthereaccountsformerelya20%.AsChinaissuchavastcountry,itisimpossibleforforeignbankse“slow-down”suggestion,believingthatinordertoprepareforcompetitionwithforeignbanksafterthetransitionperiod,Chinesebanksshouldinanearlydateseektoformjointventuresormergewithforeignbanks,andtointroduceadvaernmenthasthecapabi:TheUnitedStatesandChinareachedtheagreementonChina’saccessionintotheWTO,Chinawillreducebyalargemargintheimporttariffsonindustrialandagriculturalproducts,openthetelecommunications,insuranceanddistributionsectors,thestate-ownedenterpriseswilloperateinthetrulycommercialsense,andthisalsomeansafundamen,italsotook15yearsfortheUnitedStates,,thatis,“crossingtheriverbyfeelingtherock”,becauseitmeanstoaccep:aftertheendofthefive-yeartransitionperiod,ifforeigngovernmentsfindthatChinafailstoaccomplishcompletelyitscommitments,theywillthenenteri,ontheonehand,ithastodealwithforeigners,ontheotherhand,italsohastodealwiththelocalgovernments,,butitshouldnothavetheillusionthatitseconomyandsocietywillremain,factorsofdisadvantagesincompetitionandincreasingofunemploymentinthestate-ownedenterprisesarelikelytocausetheworseningofsocialconflicts,andtheChineseGov:“ChinawillabidebythebasicrulesoftheWTOandmodifyrelevantlawsandregulations,”andChinawill“assumecorrespondingobligationswhileenjoyingduerights.”ChineseexpertssaidconfidentlythattheChineseGovernment,someforeignrepresentativesstillexpressedtheirdoubts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GeYanfeng,DongKeyong,YangYansui,DingNingningResearchReport,,2000(Total1294),,:whatkindofasystemshouldbeestablished,andcanitbeestablishedgiventhepresentconditionsofChinaThisseriousproblemhasbeendiscussedformanyyearsbuttherehasn’,itisnecessarytoconductdiscussionsontherelevantissues.(I)MajorPointsofViewonthisIssueTherearevariousopinionsinacademiccirclesonwhatkindofmodetobechosenforChina,,acompletepay-as-you-go(PAYG)ge;thatitcaolvesnoincentiveandmayincurconsiderablefinancialcrisiswhenthenation’spopulationismtoindividuals;thatthepracticeofdecidingpaymentaccordingtoincomecanavoidtheriskofhavingtopayunbearablyhighpensionswhenthepopulationgetsaged;andthatalargesumofcompulsorylong-termsavingsthusaccumulatedwillprovideastrongfinancialsupportforthenation,susce"partialaccumulation".Thisconcepthasbeenverypopulheminimumpensionsecurityandfacilitatetheneedformutualcomplement;thesecondpartshallbe"multi-pillarmode"."partialaccumulation"isthatinthenearterm,,tocollectasmuchaspossiblemoneysoastomakeupforthedeficitthatwillturnupduringthepeakperiodofacountbutdefinethefunctionofpersonalaccountas"nominalaccount",whichservesoto’ta"unified"pt,organizationalframeandmanagementmethod,,nearlyeverycountryisconstantlyreformingitspensionsecuritysysandareindifferentstagesofeconomicdevelopment,thereis,onthetargetmode,weshouldfullyconsiderChina’sconditionsands(II)FactorstobeSeriouslyConsideredWhenChoosingtheBasicTargetModeThepensionsecuritysystemistheessentialpartofthesocialsecuritysystemaswellasoneofnationalb,,Chinaisadevelopingcountrywithalargepopulationandalowlevelofeconomicdevelopment;thereisanapparentgapbetweencitiesandcountryside;,pensionsecuritysystemorganizedbytheChinesegovernmentcanbenomorethananelementarysecuritysystemwithlowstandard,promotingtheeconomicgrowthandraisingtheeconomicefficiencyaretheprimetaskforChinaini,socialstabilizerisnottheonlyfunctionofpensionsecuritysystem,whichshouldalsoprovideincentivesinfavourofeconomicgrowth,includingencouragingcitizenstow,becauseoftherapidgrowthofpopulationduringthe1950sand1960sandthestrictimplementationofthefamilyplanningpolicysincethebeginningofthe1970s,,ourpensionsecuritysystemmustbesustainabletothepressurebroughtalongbytheagingofpopulationduringthepe,China,asChinaisinthestageofrapidindustrializationandurbanization,,,thenewp,asChinaisprogressingtowardsanewsystemofsocialistmarketeconomy,attentionshouldbegiventoseparatingther,theeconomicrestructuringwiththedevelopmentofvariousformsofeconomicownershipandheavyburdensofstate-ownedenterprisesandfve-mentionedsixissuesintheefforttochoosethetargetmodeduringthereformofthepensionsecuritysystem.(III)SuggestedModeofPensionSecuritySystemandItsInstitutionalFrameGiventheaforementionedconditionsofChina,eveniftheissuessuchasincentiveareignored,thepressureofpopulationagingalonewouldmakeit’twork,thepracticeof"operatingonblankaccount",whichisnotsubstantiallydifferentfromthepracticeofpay-as-you-gosystemintermsofthewayoffundoperation,wonspensionsecuritysysteminrecentyearshasjustifiedthisunderstanding.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.HanJunResearchReportNo044,tegicideaandpolicydecisiontoensurethesustainedandhealthydevelopmentofcrequireme,Chinahadneversucceededinestablishingarelationshipbetweentheurb,thestatehad,industrialandfarmproducewereunabletobetradedonanequalfooting,andthestateobtainedanenormousamountoffundsfromtheagriculturalsectorthroughth’sstatusasthefouother,theprod,forthefarmpopulationintheruralareasandforthenon-farmpopulationintheurbanareashavecausedinequalityinsa,alongwiththeintroductionofmarketmechanism,andthedevelopmentofmarketeconomy,,therehasbeennofundamentalchangeinthedualstructurethatseparatestheurba,,theimbalancedrelationshipbetweentheurbanandruralareasispro,China’spercapitafarmer’sincomewas2,366yuan,whileitspercapitadisposableincomeintheurbanareaswas6,:,medicalandhousingsubsidiesenjoyedbyurbanresidentsaretakenintoaccount,theactualratiobetweentheresidents’incomeandconsumptionintheurbanandruralareaswas1:anareas,andinreturnurbandevelopme,interdependent,,failingtoplantheurbanandruraleconomic-socialdevelopmentinaunifiedwayandfailingtofundamentallychangethedualstructurethatseparatestheurbanandruralareasfromeachotherconstituteatremendousimpedimenttotheexpansionofdomesticdemand,thethrivingofthemarketandtherealiz,theyalsobringaboutaseriousnegativeimpactoisamajorguidelineandamajormeasureputforwardbythe16thNationalCongressoftheCPCafteranin-depthsumming-upofChina’sdecadesofriche,thismajorguidelinealsoputforwardthebasicprinciplesthatmustbeobservedwhenhandlingtherelationship,theruralareasmustnotbeignoredandtheurbanareasmustnotbeoveremphasized,,theurbanareas’roleinhelpingandpromotingtheruralareasintheirdevelopmentandtheruralareas’clearlyshowedthewayandisalsoamajorinnovationforafundamentalsolutionoftheproblemsfacingagriculture,,,theproblemsfacingagriculture,entofChina’snationaleconomyhaseased,theirrationalstructuresofagricultureandtheruraleconomy,thelowoverallefficiencyofagricultureandtheslowincreaseoffarmers’’slivesonthewholehaveattainedthelevelofbeingwelloff,cesoftheentirepeoplehaveimprovedsteadily,buteducation,medicalcareandother’sstatusasthefoundationofthenationaleconomyandtoimprovethefarmers’livingconditions,whereasthewideningincomegapbetweentheworkersandthefarmers,betweentheurbanandtheruralareas,theproblemsfacingagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersconstituteconstraintsofde,thereisaprevailingconceptthatemphasizestheurbanareasandignorestheruralareasconsciouslyorunconsciouslyduetothelong-terminfluenceofthedualiststructuresepre,,thefarmershavetobearmostoftheexpensesfortheoperationoftheruralgrassrootsadministration,foreducationandculture,familyplanning,publicsec,thestatehastakenmorefromthefarmersthangivenbackt,duringtheperiodofplannedeconomy,Chinahadnotexpeditedtheshiftoftheruralworkforceandpopulati,ithadrestrictedthedevelopmentoftheurbanareasandthemovementofworkforce,especiallythemigrationoffarmerstothecitiesforemploymentandsettlement,intheformsofsystems,’sindustrializationhasreachedtheleveloftheworld’smoderatedevelopedcountries,,’,China’,,andtheshiftoftheruralsurpluslaborisdifficult,,theGDPproportionofChina’,whereasagriculturestillaccountedforashighas50percentofthecountry’non-farmpopulationincreasedfrom1::,,inordertofindafundamentalsolutiontotheproblemsfacingagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthenewstage,ntradictionsconfrontingagricultureandruraldevelopment,onchangingtheguidingprinciplesforhandlingtherelationshipofinterestdistributionbetweenthestateandthefarmers,andonchangingthevarioussystemsformedund,theproportionoffarmersinthetotalpopulationmustbereduced,theurbanizationprocessofruralpopulationmustbespedup,andtheroleoftheurbanareasinhelpinayhasclearlyshowedthewayandisalsoamajorinnovationforafundamentalsolutiontotheproblemsfacingagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthenewperiod....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以ChenXiwenResearchReport,,2000(Total1282)Duringthe9thFive-YearPlanperiod,anoverallbalancewasachievedbetweenthesupplyanddemandofmajoragriculturalproducts,’sagriculture,whichforlong-termtookthesupplyofsufficientfoodandclothingtothepeopleasitsfundamentaltarget,wouldnowenteran’sagriculture,andtheruralareasasawhole,,andsomehaveresultedfromthesurfacingofsomedeeplyrootedconickenthepaceofsystemandorganizationinnovationwillbethekeytosmoothadvanceofChina’sagricultureandruralworkasawholeintoanewperiodofdevelopment,andthecentraltaskinChina’dbasicappr(1).Glaringcontradictionbetandinattentiontoqualitativeoptimizationforlongyearsinthepasthasobviouslybeenrestrictedbydemand.(2).,townshipenterpriseshavegrownnoticeablywe,therurallabourforcehassufferedasetbackinitstransfertosecondaryandtertiaryindustries,andthetotalnumberofemployeesinagriculturehasbouncedback.(3).Increasingdifficultiesinthegrowthofthefarmers’,thegrowthofaverageper-capitanetincomeoffarmershassloweddownandtheruralareaasawholehassunkintoasituationofearningeverlessfromagricultureandrelyingmershasshrunkfortwoyears.(4).Aggravatingpressu,thepricesofcereals,oilsandotherstapleagricultur’sentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization,pressuresfromthisdirectionwillnoticeablyaggravate.(5).Wideningdiscrepancybetweenthe’stownsandvillagesarebasicallyorganizati,however,areoutward-orientedbusinessoperationorganizationsfromwhichtheycangetmarketinformation,technicalandfundsupport,,theestablishmentoffullgovernmentsatthetownlevelhasledtoaswellingoforganizations,staffandexpenditures,broadmassesofpeopleintheruralareas.(6).Growingdistancebetweenasupportiveandprotectiveagriculturalsystemcharacterizedmainlybypriceprot,governmentswouldshoulderheavierburdens,governmentsubsidiescouldhardlygodirectlytofarmers,,thispractimentduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiodThebasicapproachofthoughtsaboutagriculturalandruraldevelopmentatpresentandinthenearfuturehasbeendefinedbythedecisionmadeatthe3rdPl,specialattentionshouldbepaidtothreeissues:(1).Itshouldbestressedthatthestrengtheningofagricu,thecomprehensiveproductioncapacityofChina’,inparticular,ingrainproductionforfiveyears,,itwouldbeeasyforblindoptimismtodevelop,Five-YearPlanperiodhasitsinevitability,butitisalsoattributabletosomespecialfactors,suchassubstantialincreaseofthepricesofgovernmentpurchases,unlimitedpurchaseofgrainatprotectiveprices,,however,thegrowthofthepopulation,decreaseofcultivatedland,shortageofwater,,themarketsan,specialattentionshouldbepaidtostrengtheningthebasicpositionofagriculture,protectingandincreasinggrainproductioncapacityduringthe10thFive-YearPlanperiod,periodshouldbeconcentratedmoreonimprovementoftheproduction,livingandmarketconditionsofagricultureandtheruralareasasawhole,promotionofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandpopularizationofadvancedandapplicabletechnology,establishmentofasystemforcollectionanddisseminationofinformationaboutthemarketsofagriculturalproductsandasystemofqualitystandardsforagriculturalproducts,anddevelopm,thefocusshouldbeputonimprovementofthecomprehensivequalityofagriculture,thequalityofagriculturalproductsandefficiencyofagriculture,andtheincomeoffarmers.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、Lucky登陆用户至上大奖国际贵宾会网址XiaoJunyanResearchReport,,2000(Total1271)eofnumerousnewfeaturesinChina’sruraleconomyattheturnofthecen:heoriginalsupplyfunctionofproducingagriculturalproductsandindustrialproductsfordailyuseinthemaintoademandfunctionofprovidingaconsumptionmarketforagriculturalandindustrialproducts,,becausethenationaleconomyasawholestartedatalowlevel,thebasicdailynecessitiessuchasclothing,food,housingandtransportationwereinsevereshortage,theurbanindustrywasingreatneedofcapitalaccumulationandtheconsumptionofurbanresidentswasinurgentneedofimprovement,hencethefunctionofruraleconomywasbasicallysetatthelevelofsupplyingagriculturalproductsandsomeindustrialproductsfordailyuse,andtheconsumptionoffarmerswasalsosetatthelevelof"foodandclothing".Withurbanandtownshipresidentsbecamebetteroff,thereemergedarel,theproductionscaleofagriculturalandindustrialproductsforconsumption,insteadofbeingdecreased,hadtomaintainstableandincreaseslightly,,thebasicdemandforconsumptionamongthemiddleandlowincomeurbanresidentsandthemajorityofthefarmerswasnotsatisfied,whilesuchademandwasaresultoftheunbalancedeconomicde,,agriculturalandind,t,itisofvital,whichusedtobedecidedbytheincreaseoftotalsupplyandthequantitativeincreaseofsupply,isnowdeterminedbythesimultaneousincreaseofitsthetotal,andthekeyelementinthebalanfypeople’sdemandforfoodandclothingofthewholenation,itscontinuouslydecreasingpriceanddifficultinsales,,itmightmeanthatthesupplierisnotabletomeetthechangingdemandeventhoughitssupplyingsystem(includingprice,variety,qualityandquantity),itmightmeanthatthetotaldemandisnotsufficient,,thelogicalresultsinclude:thestructureofquantity,varietyandqualityofthesupplycannotbeadjustedtomeetthedemand,theincreasingpricehaspreventedthemarketfromdevelopingdifferentconsumptionlevels,,ithasbeenassu,gurepercapita,whichisnothigh,thetotaldemandisinfactworkedoutbasedontheurbanpopulationonly,whichaccountforonly20-30%,thedemandforfoodoftheruralpopulation,whichaccountforthemajorityofthetotalpopulation,cannotincreaseinaccordancewiththegrowthoftotalsupply,,theconsumptionofagriculturalproductsofmiddleandlowstandardbyfarmersandalargenumberofurbanresidentswithmiddleorlowincomehavebeenchecked,,itisnodoubtthatthetimehaspassedwhenthebalancebetweendemandandsupplywasdeterminedpurelybysupply,andth,ontheonehand,movefromagricultureandthecountrysidetomergeintonon-agriculturalsectorsandtheurbanareas,andontheotherhand,,underthepolicyof"takinggrainasthekey",reformandopeningandtheincreaseoffreeflowofrurallabour,,theruraleconomyisstillatsuchastagethattheprimaryobjectiveistoprovidepeoplewithenoughfoodandthatthenon-agriculturalsectoralmostdoesn’,cottonandotherproductsaswellasthedevelopmentofruralindustry,,farmerswerebetterfedandclothed,theyhadanurgentneedforincreasingincomes,whilethedevelopmentofthenon-agriculturalsectorwasconstrainedbylocalproductionelementsandthehighermarginalcostinexpandingthemarket,henceresultinginthereallocationoflargenumbersofrurantotheurbanareasisontheincrease,andthatthetownshipenterprisesandprivatesectorsaremovingtowards,,highqualityelementsarerequiredtobeinjectedintothec,capitalandagriculturalproductionmaterialiftheagriculturalgrowthistobectscaleandhavefairlyflexiblesystems,nthe80s-90s,whentechnology,talentsandcapitalwereabi,theadjustmentisconfrontedwiththeseriousproblemof"gapinthechangingdemand".raladjustmentafterthetraditionalindustrial/agriculturalproductshaveobtainedstable,eoffarmersandpromotethecapabilityofcon,wecanseethefollowing:Firstly,,thecurrentandexpectedexpenditureonhousing,"overtenthousandyuan"expensesw,,therurali,ifeachfarmerincreasestheconsumptionofanimalfoodandindirectlyconsumesanadditional50kgofgrain,…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LiuShijin,LongGuoqiang,WangXu,ShiYaodong,,,,tradeandinvestmentenvironment,marketstructure,degreeofglobalization,industrialmaturity,andthepotentialfordemandgrowth,,asectorthatwouldtheoreticallysuffermoreshocksmayendlatedtotheresponsestrategyafterWTOaccession,ingfromWTOaccessionasmuchaspossibletoreducerelevantrisksandcosts,maximizeadvantages,minimizedisadvantages,andemphasizeadjustment,,,peopleinsomeregions,sectorsorenterpriseshaveoveremphasizedthe"shocks"and"challenges".Someofthemevendeemedtheaccessionasanimminentdisasterandregardedtherequiredadjustmentandreformmeasuresas"somethingagainsttheirwill".Thenwehavetocomebacktotherudimentalquestion:whyshouldwejointheWTOIfcanbringusonlyormainlyshocksanddifficulties,,,joiniresoftheworldeconomicandpoliticaldevelopmentandoutofthestrategicconsiderationofChina’,despitealltherisksanduncertainties,thecentralauthorities,,,thepressureofadjustmentwillbeconcentratedontheareasofemployment,incomedistribution,,msthroughadjustment,,suchastrategywillleadtoadilemmainwhichthedisadvantagesofthetraditionalsystemcativeAdvantagesTheactiveresponsivestrategycanbesummarizedas"givingfullplaytoamajorpowercompetitiveadvantagesundertheconditionsoffurtheropening".ThepurposeistoexpeditedomesticadjustmentandreformandcreateaneffectivemarketenvironmentwiththenewopeningconditionsafterWTOaccessionsothatChina’sexistingandpotentialcomparativeadvantagescanbeturnedintocompetitiveadvantagesandChiwillfirstofalldependonhowtounderstand,nurtureanddevelopChina’’seconomicadvantages,manyoftheminthesenseofeconomics,aremainlymanifestedinthefollowingaspects:’slargestpotentialfordemandgrowthinmanyproductsandservices;,capitalcostalsodeclinedtoacertainextent;Chinahasadvantagesinthemanufacturingindustrywhichfocusesonassemblyandprocessingsectorandhascertaintechnologicalcontents;Chinahasthe"delayedstamina"intheareasoftechnology,managementandsystemthatareacquiredthroughlearningfromadvancedexperience;TheChinesepeoplehavethetraditionaltraitsofbeinggoodatdoingbusiness,’,someindustrializedcountries,suchasBritain,France,GermanyandItaly,stillhaveapopulationoflessthan100millionpeople,ionand100millionrespectively,theycannotcomparewithChina’,instead,itisthefactthatsuchalargepopulationhasbegunenteringthemid-stageofindustriali,andquiteprobablyso’surbanandruralpopulationisrelativelywide,lencerateofaparticularproductisnotveryhigh,’smobilephone,relyingmerelyonthedomesticmarketcanfullyrealizetheeconomyofscaleandscopeandcanaccommodateseverallargeenterprises,largepopulationbaseandunevendevelopmentcanensuresomeinorsismaintained,amanufacturingadvantagewithrelativry,textileindustry,heavyindustryandchemicalindustry,Chinaisnowenteringadevelopmentstagethathighlightsprocessing,assemblyandmanufacturingindustriesedbythestateforalongperiod,turingindustriesbuiltwit,theimprovementintechnologyandmanagementduringthisperiodhasmarkedlynarrowedtheg,Chinahasnotseenadrasticriseinthecostoflabor,land,capita’svastter’sseeminglyendlesssupplyofcheaplabor,especiallytheskilledworkers,techniciansandmanagerialpersonnelthatarenotedforrelativelyhighqualificationsandrelativelylowincomescomparedwiththeinternationalstandards,hasen,thetraditiona,theinterestrateshavebeencutcontinuously,makingChina’low-costadvantageinproductionfactorsareattractingmoreandmoreforeignmanufacturingcapacitiestoChina....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.SincethecurrentroundofglobaldecelerationofeconomicgrowthhasresultedfrommarketsurplusofITproducts,’scase,however,exportsoftraditionalproductsslackened,withthegrowthrateoftextilerawmaterialsandtextileproducts,shoes,headwear,%%,andthatofsomete,thetradeofelectro-machineryandhi-techproductswasextremelybrisk,%%eformofprocessingtrade,theirgrowingindicatesthatthegrowthoftheaggregatevolumeofChina’stradeandtheimprovementofstructureisipalitiesintheWesternRegionandBigFallofExportsintheSouthernandtheNortheasternReg,forinstance,%;Jiangsu,%;andShanghai,14%.%growth;Qinghai,%;andGansu,%.Whathasbeeneye-catching,however,isthatgrowthofexportsinth,-%.GuangdongProvince,whichcontributesonethirdtoChina’sexports,%,acityinGuangdongProvince,%torinthesubstantialdecelerationofthegrowthspeedofChina’,andInitialSuccessinTappingNewMarketsItisapparentthatChina’sex,China’sexportstoJapan,EuropeandtheUnitedStates,threeofitsmajorexportmarkets,%,9%%,China’,theChineseGovernmentandtheChineseenterpriseshavemadevigorouseffortstoop’sexportstoAfricaandLatinAmerica,forinstance,stoodat21%%’%%onservicesontheChinesemainland,Hong’sSituationinForeignTradeThecharacteristicsofChina’sforeigntradeintheyear2001,asdescribedabove,haveresultedfromthejointactionofmanyfactors,includingthefollowingbasicfactors:Firstofall,,,’,andbecomeamajorfactortoblamefortheslowdownofChina’’sexportsareexecutedintheformofprocessingtrade,slowdownofexportshasresultedinaslowergrowthofimportsintheformofprocessingtrade....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、DVORChinaEntrepreneurSurveySystemResearchReportNo212,2001TheChineseentrepreneurssurvey2001wasorganizedbytheChineseEntrepreneur,000questionnaireswereissuedinmid-August2001,ofwhich4,’s31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernment,exceptHongKong,,state-owedandnon-state-ownedenterprisesrespectivelyaccountedfor31percentand69percent,andthelarge,,,generalmanagers,chiefexecutiveofficers,nincl,thesurveycoveredcorporatesystemchange,economicrestructuring,marketeconomicorderregulationandChina’wnturnintheUnitedStatesandJapan,China’’smacroeconomicperform,however,entrepreneursbelievedthatproblemssuchassaggingeffectivedemandandfinancingrestraintswerestillimpedingthedevelopmentofenterprisesandthatteadyprog’songoingeconomicrestructuringwastodevelophigh-anditutedthekeytocopingwithChina’sWTOacces,theybelievedthatcorporategovernanceneededfurtherimprovementandhopedthatthegovernmentcouldfurtherregulatemarketeconomicorder,,China’,however,thedemandforChina’sexportswa,ingeneral,,“normal”.“rathercool”or“toocool”.Thisproportionisroughlyidenticalwiththatinlastyear’ssurvey,’smacroeconomicoperationthisyearhaslargelymaintainedthegooddevelopmenttrendsince2000(seethefollowingfigure).Figure1ProportionofEntrepreneursBelievingMacroeconomicOperationWas“RatherCool”or“TooCool”inRecentYearsZhangXiaojiLongGuoqiangOpeningtotheoutsideworldisafundamentalstatepoebasisofsummarizingthesuccessfulexperienceofthepastandadaptingourselvestoeconomicglobalizationatthetimewhenChinaisapproachingaccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isofimportantsignificancetocarryingoutChina’,Chinaimplementedthepolicyofopeningtotheoutsideworldanddidquitewellintakingadvantageofthefavorable,’sbasicexperienceinopeningtotheoutsideworldconsistsofthefollowing:First,nancialcrisistookplaceorwhentheinternationalsituationwasinturmoil,Chinapersistedinitsfundamentalpolicyofopeningto,Chinamadefulluseof“internationalanddomesticresourcesandmarkets”,activelyparticipatedintheinternationaldivisionoflabor,,,Chinaproperlycoordinatedinstitutionalrefo,thecountry’,themarketizationdomesticeconomyandthemajorrestructuringofforeigneconomicrelationsandtradeint,Chinaadoptedtimelystrategicmeasuresforfurtheropeni,itputforththe“strategyofexpandinginternationalmarketsharebyimprovingquality”,“marketdiversification”and“strategyofbroadly-basedforeigntradeandeconomiccooperation”.Furthermore,itpracticed“all-dimensional,multi-tieredandwide-rangingopeningtotheoutsideworld”.,Chinaconsistentlymainta,,struckagainstevasionofforeprinciplesguidingChina’conomicglobalizationasthebackdrop,Chinawillbe’seconomiclifeaswellasabasicpointofdeparturewhenweanalyz’sm,,oreandtheinternationalindustrialandtechnologicaltransferbringChinawithanhistoricopportunitytound,technologicalinnova’esintheinternationalstructureofdemandsthataretakingplacearoundtheworldandthusfailtocarryoutstructuraladjustmentdomesticallyandacceptinternationalindustrialtransfer,Chinawillfindthatitwillnotonlybeunabletoupgradeitsindustrialstructure,,thechangeintheaggregatesupplyanddemandpatternofthedomesticmarketcreatedfavorableconditionsforChinatograduallyopenitsdomesticionhaveyettobecompleted,insufficientdemandhascreatedtremenfteritsaccessiontoWTOandincreasetheshareChina’apitalandimportthoseresourcesan,whetherChinacantrulyreapthebenefitsofopeningitsmarkettotheoutsideworld,relaxingtherestrictionsontheentryofforeigncapital,andfurtherlinkinguptheinternationalanddomesticmarketswillenableChinatogiveplayonawi,thepresentdomesticmarketisstillplaguedbybarriersexistingbetweendifferentdepartmentsandbetweendifferentregions,iciesandestablishaunifiedlargemarketinthecountryduringthetransitionperiodafteraccessiontoWTOwilldirectlyaffectChina’soptimizationofresourcesallocationandeconomicdevelopment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.WuJinglianDuringthereformofenterprisesoverthepast20yearsandmore,manyofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshavebeentransformedinfluenceofthethinkingof"devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises",forinstance,in“TheEconomicReforminContemporaryChina”,abookpublishedatthebeginningofthisyear,thatthe"systemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels"isasystemofenterpriseorganizationthathasneverbeenseeninthedevelopedcountriespracticingamarketeconomyandthatithasbeesrightsandtheuseofcoercionagainsteachotherbytheindependenteconomicentitiesinsideacompany,endlessbickeringandfriction,,thesystemwhichwasoriginallydesignedtoarousetheenthusiasmofsubordinateentitieshasended,power,telecommunications,,bytakingthePetroleumCorporation(CNPC)asanexample,wewilldiscusswaysandmethodsforturningexistingcompaniesfollowingthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsintocompanieswithaninstitutionalsystemtob(CNPC)AmajorchallengefacedbytheChinaNationalPetroleumCorporationafteritscreationin1998throughrestructuringofthepetroleumandthepetrochemicalsectorsbytheStateCouncilwashowtoachievethe“integrationoftheupper-streamwiththedown-streamsectors,thedomestictradewithforeigntradeaswellasproductionwithmarketing”forthepurposeofsharpeningthegroupporation,theaverageproductioncostsoftheoilandgasproductionenterprisesofthePetroleumCorporationare30percentabovethoseoftheiroverseascounterparts,andthecostsn,itspetroleumandpeuicklyandeffectivelywillbeakeyfactordetermi/Mobil,thebiggestPetroleumCorporationintheworld,hasatotalnumberof120,,however,,surpassingthetotalnumberoftheemployeesoftheworldtheetroleumcorporationswhereast,thePetroleumCorporationwillhavetopinitshopeofdevelopmentuponexpansion,thefettersofthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevelsshouldbebroken,andthefoundationthathasproppedupthephenomenaof“all-embracingoperations”inbothbigandsmallpetroleumenterprises,duplicateconstruction,wasteofresources,ncedbythethinkingof“devolutionofpowerandconcessionofprofitstoenterprises”inthereformofenterprises,thelargestate-ownedenterprisesofChinahavedevelopedthesystemoflegalentitiesatmultiplelevels,underwhichcompaniesatalllevels,amanagerasalegalpersonoftheparentcompanycouldmakeinvestmentandestablishasub-companyonhisownacco,therehasdevelopedinthestate-ownedeconomicsectoraphenomenonof"anendlesslineofoffspring’s."Thispracticehascausedthefollowingproblems:,000or3,000,theseparentcompanies,scrambleamongindependenteconomicentitiesforresources,infdertheircontrolandcreatekingdomsoftheirown,eldofbusiness,whileeachentitywithaprofitwouldbecomec,forinstance,someareaswouldratherusesmallgeneratingunitsoftheirownwithhighcostsandheavyconsumprtakeadvantageoftheirpositionandpowertoappropriatepublicpropertiesbyextendingloans,providingguarantees,orexploitingothermeanstonation,somesubordinateswouldbenowheretobefound,carryingwiththemthepropertiesoftheparentcompanies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

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